Comparative Chart of Criminal Procedure (CrPC) and Bharatiya Nagarik Suraksha Sanhita (BNSS) 2023

Subject Sections of Cr.PC Sections of BNSS

Adjournment

– limits on

 

309

 

 346(2)

Anticipatory Bail

438 482

Appeals

No appeal in petty cases

– No appeal provision

Appeal by State Government against sentence

– Central Act

Appeal in case of acquittal

– Central Act

 

376

 

377

 

378

 

417

 

418

 

419

Appearance, Process to Compel Appearance – Other Rules Regarding Processes

Procedure as to letters

 Telegraph authority

Recording of search and seizure through audio-video electronic means

 Recording of search & seizure by mobile phone

Attachment, forfeiture or restoration of property

– Attachment, forfeiture, etc.

 

 

92

 

 

 

 

95

 

105 (New)

 

107 (New)

Appearance, Process to Compel Appearance – Proclamation and Attachment

Identification and attachment of property of proclaimed person

– Attachment of property

 

 

 

 

 

 86 (New)

Appearance, Processes to Compel Appearance – Summons

Form of summons

– Electronic summons

Summons how served

– Summons by electronic communication

– Record keeping

Service of summons on corporate bodies, firms and societies

– Service of summons to firm, or association of individuals other than company or corporation

Proof of service in such cases and when serving officer not present

– Summons by electronic communication

Service of summons on witness

– Summons by electronic communication

 

 

61

 

62

 

 

63

 

 

68

 

69

 

 

63

 

64

 

 

65

 

 

70

 

71

Appearance, Process to Compel Appearance – Warrant of Arrest

Procedure on arrest of person against whom warrant issue

– Information regarding arrest

 

 

 80

 

 

 82

Arrest of Persons

When may police arrest without a warrant

– Infirm/Old age person

Procedure of arrest and duties of officer making the arrest

– Information of arrest

Designated Police Officer

– Information display

Arrest on refusal to give name and residence

– Bond/Bail Bond

Arrest by private person and procedure on such arrest

– Time limit of handing over arrestee (subjected to private arrest) to police

– Re-arrest by police

Arrest how made

– Hand cuffing

Obligation of person making arrest to inform about arrest, etc., to relative or friend

– Information as to arrest

Power to seize offensive weapons

– Seizure of weapons

Examination of accused by medical practitioner at request of Police Officer

– Registered medical practitioner

– Request for examination

Examination of person accused of rape by medical practitioner

– Registered Medical Practitioner

Examination of arrested person by medical officer

– Medical examination

Identity parade (identification of person arrested)

– Identification process

Person arrested not to be detained more than twenty- four hours

– Magistrate having jurisdiction or not

 

41 & 41A

 

41B

 

41C

 

42

 

43

 

 

46

 

50A

 

 

52

 

53

 

 

53A

 

54

 

54A

 

57

 

35

 

36

 

37

 

39

 

40

 

 

43

 

48

 

 

50

 

51

 

 

52

 

53

 

54

 

58

Attachment, Forfeiture of Property

– Procedure for

 

 

 107 (New)

Audio Video Electronic Means

– definition of

 

 

 

 2(1)(a) (New)

Bail

– definition of

 

 

2(1)(b) (New)

Bail Bond

– definition of

 

 

 

2(1)(d)(New)

Bails and Bonds, Provisions as to

Maximum period for which undertrial prisoner can be detained

– Undertrial prisoner

When bail can be taken in case of non-bailable offence

– In case of a child/woman/sick or infirm

– Refusal for bail

Anticipatory bail (direction for grant of bail to person apprehending arrest)

– Anticipatory bail

 

 

436A

 

437

 

438

 

 

479

 

480

 

482

Bond

– definition of

 

 

2(1)(e)(New)

Charges – Joinder of Charges

Offences of same kind within year may be charged together

– Number of offences

 

219

 

242

Court of Session, Trial Before a

Opening case for prosecution

– Any other law for the time being in force

Discharge

– Time-limit for making application for discharge

Framing of charge

– Time-limit for framing of charges

– Accused presence in Court electronically

Evidence for prosecution

– Recording of witness, etc., by audio video electronic means

Judgment of acquittal or conviction

– Time-bound disposal of case by conviction or acquittal

Procedure in cases instituted under sub-section (2) of section 222

– Quantum of compensation

 

 

226

 

227

 

228

 

 

231

 

235

 

237

 

 

249

 

250

 

251

 

 

254

 

258

 

260

Courts, Powers of

Sentences which high courts and sessions judges may pass

– Assistant Sessions Judge

Sentences which Magistrates may pass

– Monetary limits on fines

– Metropolitan Area/Metropolitan Magistrate

– Community Service

Sentence in cases of conviction of several offences at one trial

– Concurrent imprisonment

– Maximum punishment

 

 

28

 

29

 

 

 

31

 

 

22

 

23

 

 

 

25

Criminal Cases, Transfer of

Power of Supreme Court to transfer cases and appeals

– Compensation

Power of High Court to transfer cases and appeals

– Compensation

Power of Sessions Judge to transfer cases and appeals

– Monetary limit

 

406

 

407

 

408

 

446

 

447

 

448

Criminal Courts and Offices, Constitution of

Metropolitan Area/Metropolitan Magistrate

– Concept abolished

Special Executive Magistrates

– Police Officer

Public Prosecutors

– Public prosecutors for National Territory of Delhi Region

– Special Public Prosecutor

Assistant Public Prosecutors

– Notice to State Government

Directorate of Prosecution

– District Directorate of Prosecution

– Eligible criteria of appointment of Director/Deputy Director of Prosecution

– Assistant Directors of Prosecution

– Roles and responsibilities of Director/Deputy Director/Assistant Director of Prosecution

 

 

6

 

21

 

24

 

 

25

 

25A

 

 

6

 

15

 

18

 

 

19

 

20

Criminal Courts in Inquiries and Trials, Jurisdiction of the

Offences committed by means of electronic communications, letters, etc.
– Electronic communication

Offence committed outside India

– Offence committed outside India

Receipt of evidence relating to offences committed outside India

– Evidence in electronic form

 

 

182

 

188

 

189

 

 

202

 

208

 

209

Death Sentences, Submission of, for Confirmation

Sentence of death to be submitted by Court of Session for confirmation

– Time limit for submission of death sentence proceedings to High Court by Court of Sessions

Procedure in cases submitted to High Court for confirmation

– Electronic means

 

 

366

 

371

 

 

407

 

412

Definitions

Change in definitions

– Investigation

– Words and phrases used in the legislation but not defined

New Definitions

– Audio-video electronic means

– Bail

– Bail Bond

– Bond

– Electronic communication

 

2(h)

 

2(y)

 

 

 

2(1)(l)

 

2(2)(New)

 

 

2(1)(a)(New)

2(1)(b)(New)

2(1)(d)(New)

2(1)(e)(New)

2(1)(i)(New)

Directorate of Prosecution

– District Directorate of prosecution

– Eligible criteria of appointment of Director/Deputy Director of Prosecution

– Assistant Director of Prosecution

– Role and Responsibility of

25A 20

Electronic Communication

– Definition of

 

 

2(1)(i)(New)

Electronic Mode, Trial and Proceedings to Be Held in

Trial to be held in electronic mode

– Trial, inquiries and proceedings in electronic mode

 

 

 

 

530 (New)

Forensic Facility

– Procedure for investigation

 

 

176(3)(New)

Hand Cuffing

– When can be done

 

46

 

43

Inquiries and Trial, Evidence In – Commission for the Examination of Witness

No formal proof of certain documents

– Time-limit for acceptance or denial of genuineness of document

– Expert

Evidence of Public Servants, experts, Public Officers in certain cases

– Successor officer/expert

 

 

294

 

 

 

 

330

 

 

336(New)

Inquiries and Trials, Evidence In-Mode of Taking and Recording Evidence

Evidence to be taken in presence of accused

– Audio-video electronic means

Record in summons-cases and inquiries

– Rape cases

Record of examination of accused

– Time limit for taking signature of accused examined by electronic communication

 

 

273

 

274

 

316

 

 

308

 

309

 

281

Inquiries and Trials, General Provisions as to

Power to postpone or adjourn proceedings

– Limits on adjournments

Power of Magistrate to order person to give specimen signatures or handwriting, etc.

– Magistrate’s power to order any person to give specimen signature, etc.

Provision for inquiries and trial being held in absence of accused in certain cases

– Personal attendance of accused through audio video electronics means

Inquiry, trial or judgment in absentia of proclaimed offender

Withdrawal from prosecution

– Central Act

– Opportunity of hearing

Court to be open

– In camera trial provision extended to offences under Protection of Children from Sexual Offences Act also

 

 

309

 

311A

 

317

 

 

321

 

 

327

 

 

346

 

349

 

355

 

 

356(New)

360

 

 

366

Judgment

Judgment

– Time limit for pronouncing judgment by Court

– Time-limit for loading copy of Court’s judgment on its portal

– Accused in custody to hear judgment by audio video electronic means

Treatment of victims

– Duty of hospitals to provide immediately, the first- aid or medical treatment, free of cost to victims of offences under Protection of Children from Sexual Offences Act, 2012

Witness Protection Scheme

– Protection of witness

Copy of judgment to be given to accused and other persons

– Copy of Judgment to Government

Judgment when to be translated

– Translation copy

 

353

 

 

 

357C

 

 

 

 

363

 

364

 

 

392

 

 

 

397

 

 

 

398(New)

 

404

 

405

Magistrates, Complaints to

Examination of complainant

– Cognizance of complaint

 

200

 

223

Magistrates, Commencement of Proceedings Before

Issue of process

– Electronic summons

Special summons in case of petty offence

– Monetary limit of fine

Supply to accused of copy of police report and other documents

– Time limit stipulated for supply of copy of police report, FIR etc.

– Copy to victim

– Report in electronic form

Supply of copies of statements and documents to accused in other cases triable by court of session

– Time limit and form for supply of copy

Commitment of case to Court of Session when offence is triable exclusively by it

– Time limit for completion of proceedings

– Copy to Court of Sessions

 

 

204

 

206

 

207

 

 

 

208

 

 

209

 

 

227

 

229

 

230

 

 

 

231

 

 

232

Magistrate, Proceedings by, Conditions Requisite for Initiation of

Cognizance of offences by Magistrate

– Mode of taking cognizance

Prosecution for contempt of lawful authority of public servants, for offences against public justice and for offences relating to documents given in evidence

– Cognizance by whom

Prosecution of Judges and Public Servants

– Time limit for sanction

Prosecution for offences against marriage

– Unsound mind/child

Prosecution for defamation

– Unsound mind/child

 

 

190

 

195

 

 

197

 

198

 

199

 

 

210

 

215

 

 

218

 

219

 

222

Maintenance of Wives, Children and Parents, Order for

Procedure

– Advocate

– Residence of father or mother

 

 

 126

 

 

145

Mercy Petition

– Procedure for

 

 

472 (New)

Offences Affecting the Administration of Justice, Provisions as to

Summary procedure for trial for giving false evidence

– Fine prescribed

Procedure in certain cases of contempt

– Fine prescribed

Summary procedure for punishment for non- attendance by a witness in obedience to summons

– Fine prescribed

 

 

344

 

345

 

350

 

 

383

 

384

 

389

 

Plea Bargaining

Application for plea bargaining

– Time-limit for filing application for plea bargaining

– Time-limit for reaching a mutually satisfactory disposition

Disposal of case

– First time offender

 

265B

 

 

265E

 

290

 

 

293

Police, Information to the, their Powers to Investigate

Information in cognizable cases

– Electronic communication

– Information to informant/victim

– Preliminary enquiry

– Powers of Superintendent of Police

Information as to non-cognizable cases and investigation of such cases

– Daily Diary

Police Officer’s power to investigate cognizable case

– Powers of Superintendent of Police/Judicial Magistrate

Procedure for investigation

– Audio-video electronic data

– Forensic facility

– Non-compliance with requirement of section 176(1)

Police Officer’s power to require attendance of witnesses

– Acute illness

– Exempted person willingness to attend

Recording of confessions and statements

– Woman Magistrate

–  Recording statement of witness

– Audio-video electronic means

– Metropolitan Area/Metropolitan Magistrate

Medical examination of victim of rape

– Time-limit for submission of medical examination report of rape victim

Search by Police Officer

– Recording of search by mobile

– Time limit for sending records

Procedure when investigation cannot be completed in 24 hours

– Period of declaration

– Detention in police station

– Audio-video electronic means

Cases to be sent to magistrate, when evidence is sufficient

– Security for appearance

Report of police officer on completion of investigation

– Requirement of time-bound completion of investigation within 2 months applicable to offences of rape and gang rape have been extended to offences under POSCO

– Electronic communication

– Progress of investigation

– Supply of copies of documents

– Time-limit for completion of investigation

Police to enquire and report on suicide, etc.

– Time-limit for sending enquiry report to DM/SDM

Power to summon persons

– Restrictions on power to summon persons

 

 

154

 

 

 

 

155

 

156

 

157

 

 

 

160

 

 

164

 

 

 

 

164A

 

165

 

 

167

 

 

 

170

 

173

 

 

 

 

 

 

174

 

175

 

 

173

 

 

 

 

174

 

175

 

176

 

 

 

179

 

 

183

 

 

 

 

184

 

185

 

 

187

 

 

 

190

 

193

 

 

 

 

 

 

194

 

195

Police, Person Bound to Follow Law Direction of

– Provision for

 

 

 

 172 (New)

Police, Powers of Superior Officers of Police and Aid to the Magistrates and Police

Duty of officers employed in connection with affairs of a village to make a certain report

– Proclaimed offender

 

 

 

40

 

 

 

34

Police, Preventive Action of

Persons bound to conform to lawful directions of police

– Binding force of lawful directions of Police

 

 

172 (New)

Prisons, Persons Detained in, Attendance of

Power of State Government or Central Government to exclude certain persons from operation of section 302 (requirement of attendance)

– Power extends to Central Government also

 

 

268

 

 

303

Processes to Compel the Production of Things – Search and Seizure, Attachment, etc.

Summons to produce document or other thing

– Telegraph authority

– Electronic communication

– Electronic summons

 

 

 91

 

 

 94

Proclaimed Offender

– Definition of

– Attachment of property

– Inquiry, trial or judgment in absentia of

 

40

 

34

86 (New)

356 (New)

 

Property, Disposal Of

Order for custody and disposal of property pending trial in certain cases

– Magistrate

– Statement of property

– Photograph/videography of property

– Time limit for disposal of property

Power to sell perishable property

– Prescribed value

 

451

 

 

 

 

 

459

 

497

 

 

 

 

 

505

Public Nuisance

Conditional order for removal of nuisance

– Scope of provision

Person to whom order is addressed to obey or show cause

– Audio video conference

Procedure where person against whom order is made appears to show cause

– Time-limit for completion of proceedings

Magistrate may prohibit the repetition or continuance of public nuisance

– Deputy Commissioner of Police

 

133

 

 

135

 

138

 

143

 

152

 

 

154

 

157

 

162

Public Order and Tranquility, Maintenance of Unlawful Assemblies

Dispersal of assembly by use of civil force

– Gender of person

Use of armed forces to disperse assembly

– District/Executive Magistrate

 

 

129

 

 

130

 

148

 

 

149

Search and Seizure

– Recording of, by mobile

 

 

105 (New)

Security for Keeping the Peace and for Good Behaviour

Security for good behaviour from habitual offenders

– Specified Acts

Order to be made

– Sureties

 

 

110

 

111

 

 

129

 

130

Sentences, Execution/Suspension/Remission of

– Mercy petition in death sentence cases

Power to commute sentence

– Computation of sentences

State Government to act after concurrence with Central Government in certain cases

– Central Act

 

 

433

 

435

 

472 (New)

 

474

 

477

Summary Trials

Power to try summarily

– Summary trial

 

260

 

283

Summons – Cases, Trial of, By Magistrates

Substance of accusation to be stated

– Release of accused

Non-appearance or death of complainant

– Time-limit for appearance of complainant

 

 

251

 

256

 

 

274

 

279

Warrant – Cases, Trial of, By Magistrates: Cases Instituted on Police Report

When accused shall be discharged

– Time limit of application for discharge by accused

– Examination of accused through audio-electronic means

Framing of charge

– Time-bound framing of charges

Evidence for prosecution

– Recording of evidence of witness by audio-video electronic means

Evidence for defence

– Examination of witness by audio-video electronic means

 

 

239

 

 

240

 

242

 

243

 

 

262

 

 

263

 

265

 

266

Warrant Cases, Trial of, By Magistrates: Cases Instituted Other than on Police Report

Procedure where accused is not discharged

– Closure of prosecution evidence where attendance of PWs cannot be secured despite giving opportunity to the prosecution and after taking all reasonable measures under this Sanhita

 

 

 

246

 

 

 

269

Warrant-cases, Trial of: Conclusion of Trial

Absence of complainant

– Time limit for presence of complainant

 

 

249

 

 

272

Comparative Chart of Criminal Procedure Code (CrPC) and Bharatiya Nagarik Suraksha Sanhita (BNSS) 2023

In India, the legal framework governing criminal procedure undergoes periodic revisions to ensure fairness, efficiency, and adherence to constitutional principles. The Criminal Procedure Code (CrPC), enacted in 1973, outlines the procedural aspects of criminal law, guiding investigations, trials, and appeals. Recently, discussions have surfaced regarding the potential introduction of the Bharatiya Nagarik Suraksha Sanhita (BNSS) 2023, a prospective legislation aimed at modernizing and refining the existing procedural standards.

Understanding the Criminal Procedure Code (CrPC)

The CrPC provides a structured framework for the conduct of criminal proceedings in India’s courts. It delineates the roles and responsibilities of law enforcement agencies, prosecutors, and judiciary, ensuring procedural fairness and adherence to due process. Key aspects covered by the CrPC include arrest procedures, bail provisions, trial processes, and post-trial remedies.

Introducing the Bharatiya Nagarik Suraksha Sanhita (BNSS) 2023

The proposed Bharatiya Nagarik Suraksha Sanhita 2023 seeks to address contemporary challenges and enhance procedural efficiency within the criminal justice system. Key features of the BNSS 2023 include:

  • Victim Rights: Recognizing the rights and needs of crime victims, the BNSS 2023 introduces provisions for victim compensation, support services, and participation in legal proceedings, thereby fostering a more victim-centric approach to justice.

  • Speedy Trials: In response to concerns over delays in justice delivery, the BNSS 2023 proposes measures to expedite criminal trials without compromising fairness, emphasizing timelines for investigation, trial proceedings, and appellate reviews.

  • Technology Integration: Embracing technological advancements, the BNSS 2023 promotes the use of electronic filing systems, video conferencing for witness testimony, and digital evidence management to streamline processes and reduce administrative burdens.

Comparative Analysis

Procedural Efficiency

While the Criminal Procedure Code lays down comprehensive procedural guidelines, the Bharatiya Nagarik Suraksha Sanhita 2023 introduces reforms aimed at enhancing procedural efficiency and reducing bureaucratic hurdles. It emphasizes the use of technology and streamlined processes to expedite trials and improve access to justice.

Victim-Centric Approach

Unlike the CrPC, which primarily focuses on procedural safeguards for defendants and fair trial rights, the BNSS 2023 places significant emphasis on enhancing protections and support mechanisms for crime victims, ensuring their voices are heard throughout the legal process.

Legal Safeguards

Both legislations uphold fundamental legal principles, including the presumption of innocence, right to legal representation, and the prohibition of arbitrary detention. However, the BNSS 2023 incorporates additional safeguards tailored to modern challenges, such as cybercrimes and terrorism, thereby adapting the legal framework to contemporary threats.

 

The comparison between the Criminal Procedure Code (CrPC) and the prospective Bharatiya Nagarik Suraksha Sanhita 2023 highlights India’s commitment to evolving its criminal justice system in response to societal needs and technological advancements. While the CrPC remains foundational, the introduction of the BNSS 2023 signifies a progressive step toward enhancing procedural efficiency, protecting victim rights, and promoting equitable access to justice for all citizens.

As India continues to navigate the complexities of legal reform and governance, the synergy between these legislations promises a more robust and responsive criminal justice system that upholds the rule of law while safeguarding individual rights and societal interests.

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

The Criminal Procedure Code (CrPC) is a comprehensive legal framework enacted in 1973, governing the procedural aspects of criminal trials in India. It outlines procedures for investigation, arrest, bail, trial, and appeals, ensuring fairness and adherence to due process.

The Bharatiya Nagarik Suraksha Sanhita (BNSS) 2023 is a proposed legislation aimed at modernizing and refining India’s criminal procedural standards. It seeks to enhance procedural efficiency, protect victim rights, and integrate technological advancements into the judicial process.

The CrPC, established in 1973, provides a foundational framework for criminal procedure, emphasizing procedural safeguards and legal rights for defendants. In contrast, the BNSS 2023 introduces reforms such as victim-centric provisions, speedy trial mandates, and technology integration to streamline processes and enhance access to justice.

 

Key features of the Bharatiya Nagarik Suraksha Sanhita (BNSS) 2023 include:

  • Victim Rights: Introduces provisions for victim compensation, support services, and participation in legal proceedings.
  • Speedy Trials: Aims to expedite criminal trials through defined timelines for investigation, trial proceedings, and appellate reviews.
  • Technology Integration: Promotes the use of electronic filing, video conferencing for witness testimony, and digital evidence management to enhance procedural efficiency.

 

The BNSS 2023 addresses challenges in the current legal system by:

  • Enhancing Victim Protections: Providing comprehensive rights and support mechanisms for crime victims.
  • Streamlining Procedures: Introducing measures to expedite trials and reduce administrative delays.
  • Adopting Technology: Integrating modern technology to improve accessibility and efficiency in legal processes.

As of now, the BNSS 2023 is a proposed legislation and its implementation remains subject to legislative approval and adoption. It is designed to complement existing laws like the CrPC by modernizing procedural standards and addressing contemporary legal challenges.

The BNSS 2023 is expected to impact legal professionals and litigants by:

  • Improving Efficiency: Streamlining procedures and reducing delays in legal proceedings.
  • Enhancing Access to Justice: Ensuring fairness and transparency in the judicial process.
  • Empowering Victims: Providing stronger protections and support for crime victims throughout legal proceedings.
error: Content is protected !!