Comparative Chart Of Indian Penal Code And 2023 Bharatiya Nyaya Sanhita 2023

ABCD
1
Indian Penal Code, 1860Bharatiya Nyaya Sanhita, 2023
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SectionHeadingSectionHeading
3
1Title and extent of operation of the Code1Short title, commencement and application
4
2Punishment of offences committed within India1(3)Short title, commencement and application
5
3Punishment of offences committed beyond, but which by law may be tried within, India1(4)Short title, commencement and application
6
4Extension of Code to extra-territorial offences1(5)Short title, commencement and application
7
5Certain laws not to be affected by this Act
8
6Definitions in the Code to be understood subject to exceptions1(6)Short title, commencement and application
9
7Sense of expression once explained
10
8Gender2(9)“Gender”
11
9Number2(22)“Number”
12
10“Man”, “Woman”2(18)“Man”
13
2(35)“Woman”
14
11“Person”2(26)“Person”
15
12“Public”2(27)“Public”
16
13Definition of “Queen”
17
14“Servant of Government”2(28)“Public servant”
18
15Definition of “British India”
19
16Definition of “Government of India”
20
17Government2(11)“Government”
21
18India
22
19“Judge”2(15)“Judge”
23
20“Court of Justice”2(4)“Court”
24
21“Public servant”2(28)“Public servant”
25
22“Movable property”2(21)“Movable property”
26
23“Wrongful gain”2(36)“Wrongful gain”
27
2(38)“Gaining wrongfully”, “Losing wrongfully”
28
24“Dishonestly”2(6)“Dishonestly”
29
25“Fraudulently”2(8)“Fraudulently”
30
26“Reason to believe”2(29)“Reason to believe”
31
27Property in possession of wife, clerk or servant3General Explanations and expressions
32
28“Counterfeit”2(3)“Counterfeit”
33
29“Document”2(7)“Document”
34
29A“Electronic record”2(39)
35
30“Valuable security”2(31)“Valuable security”
36
31“A will”2(34)“Will”
37
32Words referring to acts include illegal omissions2(1)“Act”
38
3(4)General Explanations and expressions
39
33“Act”, “Omission”2(1)“Act”
40
2(26)“Person”
41
34Acts done by several persons in furtherance of common intention3(5)General Explanations and expressions
42
35When such an act is criminal by reason of its being done with a criminal knowledge or intention3(6)General Explanations and expressions
43
36Effect caused partly by act and partly by omission3(7)General Explanations and expressions
44
37Co-operation by doing one of several acts constituting an offence3(8)General Explanations and expressions
45
38Persons concerned in Criminal Act may be guilty of different offences3(9)General Explanations and expressions
46
39“Voluntarily”2(33)“Voluntarily”
47
40“Offence”2(24)“Offence”
48
41“Special law”2(30)“Special law”
49
42“Local law”2(17)“Local law”
50
43“Illegal”, “Legally bound to do”2(14)“Illegal”
51
44“Injury”2(13)“Injury”
52
45“Life”2(16)“Life”
53
46“Death”2(5)“Death”
54
47“Animal”2(2)“Animal”
55
48“Vessel”2(32)“Vessel”
56
49“Year”/”Month”2(20)”Month”/“Year”
57
50“Section”
58
51“Oath”2(23)“Oath”
59
52“Good faith”2(10)“Good faith”
60
52A“Harbour”2(12)“Harbour”
61
53Punishments4Punishments
62
53AConstruction of reference to transportation
63
54Commutation of sentence of death5Commutation of sentence of death or imprisonment for life
64
55Commutation of sentence of imprisonment for life5Commutation of sentence of death or imprisonment for life
65
55ADefinition of “appropriate Government”
Explanation to section 5
Commutation of sentence of death or imprisonment for life
66
56Sentence of Europeans and Americans to penal servitude, proviso as to sentence for term exceeding ten years but not for life
67
57Fractions of terms of punishment6Fractions of terms of punishment
68
58Offenders sentenced to transportation how dealt with until transported4Punishments
69
59Transportation instead of imprisonment4Punishments
70
60Sentence may be (in certain cases of imprisonment) wholly or partly rigorous or simple7Sentence may be (in certain cases of imprisonment) wholly or partly rigorous or simple
71
61Sentence of forfeiture of property
72
62Forfeiture of property, in respect of offenders punishable with death, transportation or imprisonment
73
63Amount of fine8Amount of fine, liability in default of payment of fine, etc.
74
64Sentence of imprisonment for non-payment of fine8Amount of fine, liability in default of payment of fine, etc.
75
65Limit to imprisonment for non-payment of fine, when imprisonment and fine awardable8(3)Amount of fine, liability in default of payment of fine, etc.
76
66Description of imprisonment for non-payment of fine8(4)/(5)Amount of fine, liability in default of payment of fine, etc.
77
67Imprisonment for non-payment of fine when offence punishable with fine only8(6)Amount of fine, liability in default of payment of fine, etc.
78
68Imprisonment to terminate on payment of fine8(6)Amount of fine, liability in default of payment of fine, etc.
79
69Termination of imprisonment on payment of proportional part of fine8(6)Amount of fine, liability in default of payment of fine, etc.
80
70Fine leviable within six years, or during imprisonment – Death not to discharge property from liability8(7)Amount of fine, liability in default of payment of fine, etc.
81
71Limit of punishment of offence made up of several offences9Limit of punishment of offence made up of several offences
82
72Punishment of person guilty of one of several offences, the judgment stating that it is doubtful of which10Punishment of person guilty of one of several offences, the judgment stating that it is doubtful of which
83
73Solitary confinement11Solitary confinement
84
74Limit of solitary confinement12Limit of solitary confinement
85
75Enhanced punishment for certain offences under Chapter XII or Chapter XVII after previous conviction13Enhanced punishment for certain offences after previous conviction
86
76Act done by a person bound, or by mistake of fact believing himself bound, by law14Act done by a person bound, or by mistake of fact believing himself bound, by law
87
77Act of Judge when acting judicially15Act of Judge when acting judicially
88
78Act done pursuant to the judgment or order of Court16Act done pursuant to the judgment or order of Court
89
79Act done by a person justified, or by mistake of fact believing himself justified, by law17Act done by a person justified, or by mistake of fact believing himself, justified, by law
90
80Accident in doing a lawful act18Accident in doing a lawful act
91
81Act likely to cause harm, but done without criminal intent, and to prevent other harm19Act likely to cause harm, but done without criminal intent, and to prevent other harm
92
82Act of a child under seven years of age20Act of a child under seven years of age
93
83Act of a child above seven and under twelve of immature understanding21Act of a child above seven and under twelve of immature understanding
94
84Act of a person of unsound mind22Act of a person of mental illness
95
85Act of a person incapable of judgment by reason of intoxication caused against his will23Act of a person incapable of judgment by reason of intoxication caused against his will
96
86Offence requiring a particular intent or knowledge committed by one who is intoxicated24Offence requiring a particular intent or knowledge committed by one who is intoxicated
97
87Act not intended and not known to be likely to cause death or grievous hurt, done by consent25Act not intended and not known to be likely to cause death or grievous hurt, done by consent
98
88Act not intended to cause death, done by consent in good faith for person’s benefit26Act not intended to cause death, done by consent in good faith for person’s benefit
99
89Act done in good faith for benefit of child or insane person, by or by consent of guardian27Act done in good faith for benefit of child or person with mental illness, by or by consent of guardian
100
90Consent known to be given under fear or misconception28Consent known to be given under fear or misconception
101
91Exclusion of acts which are offences independently of harm caused29Exclusion of acts which are offences independently of harm caused
102
92Act done in good faith for benefit of a person without consent30Act done in good faith for benefit of a person without consent
103
93Communication made in good faith31Communication made in good faith
104
94Act to which a person is compelled by threats32Act to which a person compelled by threats
105
95Act causing slight harm33Act causing slight harm
106
96Things done in private defence34Things done in private defence
107
97Right of private defence of the body and of property35Right of private defence of the body and of property
108
98Right of private defence against the act of a person of unsound mind, etc36Right of private defence against the act of a person with mental illness, etc.
109
99Act against which there is no right to private defence37Acts against which there is no right of private defence
110
100When the right of private defence of the body extends to causing death38When the right of private defence of the body extends to causing death
111
101When such right extends to causing any harm other than death39When such right extends to causing any harm other than death
112
102Commencement and continuance of the right of private defence of the body40Commencement and continuance of the right of private defence of the body
113
103When the right of private defence of property extends to causing death41When the right of private defence of property extends to causing death
114
104When such right extends to causing any harm other than death42When such right extends to causing any harm other than death
115
105Commencement and continuance of the right of private defence of property43Commencement and continuance of the right of private defence of property
116
106Right of private defence against deadly assault when there is risk of harm to innocent person44Right of private defence against deadly assault when there is risk of harm to innocent person
117
107Abetment of a thing45Abetment of a thing
118
108Abettor46Abettor
119
108AAbetment in India of offences outside India47Abetment in India of offences outside India
120
109Punishment of abetment if the act abetted is committed in consequence and where no express provision is made for its punishment49Punishment of abetment if the act abetted is committed in consequence and where no express provision is made for its punishment
121
110Punishment of abetment if person abetted does act with a different intention from that of abettor50Punishment of abetment if person abetted does act with different intention from that of abettor
122
111Liability of abettor when one act abetted and different act done51Liability of abettor when one act abetted and different act done
123
112Abettor when liable to cumulative punishment for act abetted and for act done52Abettor when liable to cumulative punishment for act abetted and for act done
124
113Liability of abettor for an effect caused by the act abetted different from that intended by the abettor53Liability of abettor for an effect caused by the act abetted different from that intended by the abettor
125
114Abettor present when offence is committed54Abettor present when offence is committed
126
115Abetment of offence punishable with death or imprisonment for life55Abetment of offence punishable with death or imprisonment for life
127
116Abetment of offence punishable with imprisonment56Abetment of offence punishable with imprisonment
128
117Abetting commission of offence by the public or by more than ten persons57Abetting commission of offence by the public or by more than ten persons
129
118Concealing design to commit offence punishable with death or imprisonment for life58Concealing design to commit offence punishable with death or imprisonment for life
130
119Public servant concealing design to commit offence which it is his duty to prevent59Public servant concealing design to commit offence which it is his duty to prevent
131
120Concealing design to commit offence punishable with imprisonment60Concealing design to commit offence punishable with imprisonment
132
120ADefinition of criminal conspiracy61(1)Criminal conspiracy
133
120BPunishment of criminal conspiracy61(1)Criminal conspiracy
134
62Punishment for attempting to commit offences punishable with imprisonment for life or other imprisonment
135
121Waging, or attempting to wage war, or abetting waging of war, against the Government of India145Waging, or attempting to wage war, or abetting waging of war, against the Government of India
136
121AConspiracy to commit offences punishable by section 121146Conspiracy to commit offences punishable by section 145
137
122Collecting arms, etc., with intention of waging war against the Government of India147Collecting arms, etc., with intention of waging war against the Government of India
138
123Concealing with intent to facilitate design to wage war148Concealing with intent to facilitate design to wage war
139
124Assaulting President, Governor, etc, with intent to compel or restrain the exercise of any lawful power149Assaulting President, Governor, etc., with intent to compel or restrain the exercise of any lawful power
140
124ASedition150Acts endangering sovereignty unity and integrity of India
141
125Waging war against any Asiatic power in alliance with the Government of India151Waging war against Government of any foreign State at peace with the Government of India
142
126Committing depredation on territories of power at peace with the Government of India152Committing depredation on territories of foreign State at peace with the Government of India
143
127Receiving property taken by war or depredation mentioned in sections 125 and 126153Receiving property taken by war or depredation mentioned in sections 153 and 154
144
128Public servant voluntarily allowing prisoner of State or war to escape154Public servant voluntarily allowing prisoner of state or war to escape
145
129Public servant negligently suffering such prisoner to escape155Public servant negligently suffering such prisoner to escape
146
130Aiding escape of, rescuing or harbouring such prisoner156Aiding escape of, rescuing or harbouring such prisoner
147
131Abetting mutiny, attempting to seduce a soldier, sailor or airman from his duty157Abetting mutiny, or attempting to seduce a soldier, sailor or airman from his duty
148
132Abetment of mutiny, if mutiny is committed in consequence thereof158Abetment of mutiny, if mutiny is committed in consequence thereof
149
133Abetment of assault by soldier, sailor or airman on his superior officer, when in execution of his office159Abetment of assault by soldier, sailor or airman on his superior officer, when in execution of his office
150
134Abetment of such assault, if the assault is committed160Abetment of such assault, if the assault committed
151
135Abetment of desertion of soldier, sailor or airman161Abetment of desertion of soldier, sailor or airman
152
136Harbouring deserter162Harbouring deserter
153
137Deserter concealed on board, merchant vessel through negligence of master163Deserter concealed on board merchant vessel through negligence of master
154
138Abetment of act of insubordination by soldier, sailor or airman164Abetment of act of insubordination by soldier, sailor or airman
155
138AApplication of foregoing sections to the Indian Marine Service
156
139Persons subject to certain Acts165Persons subject to certain Acts
157
140Wearing garb or carrying token used by soldier, sailor or airman166Wearing garb or carrying token used by soldier, sailor or airman
158
141Unlawful assembly187Unlawful assembly
159
142Being member of unlawful assembly188Every member of unlawful assembly guilty of offence committed in prosecution of common object
160
143Punishment187(3)Unlawful assembly
161
144Joining unlawful assembly armed with deadly weapon187(4)/
187(9)
Unlawful assembly
162
145Joining or continuing in unlawful assembly, knowing it has been commanded to disperse187(3)/
187(5)
Unlawful assembly
163
146Rioting189Rioting
164
147Punishment for rioting189(2)/
189(3)
Rioting
165
148Rioting, armed with deadly weapon189Rioting
166
149Every member of unlawful assembly guilty of offence committed in prosecution of common object188Every member of unlawful assembly guilty of offence committed in prosecution of common object
167
150Hiring, or conniving at hiring, of persons to join unlawful assembly187(6)Unlawful assembly
168
151Knowingly joining or continuing in assembly of five or more persons after it has been commanded to disperse187(5)Unlawful assembly
169
152Assaulting or obstructing public servant when suppressing riot, etc.193Assaulting or obstructing public servant when suppressing riot, etc.
170
153Wantonly giving provocation with intent to cause riot – If rioting be committed – If not committed190Wantonly giving provocation with intent to cause riot- if rioting be committed; if not committed
171
153APromoting enmity between different groups on grounds of religion, race, place of birth, residence, language, etc., and doing acts prejudicial to maintenance of harmony194Promoting enmity between different groups on ground of religion, race, place of birth, residence, language, etc., and doing acts prejudicial to maintenance of harmony.
172
153AAPunishment for knowingly carrying arms in any procession or organising, or holding or taking part in any mass drill or mass training with arms
173
153BImputations, assertions prejudicial to national integration195Imputations, assertions prejudicial to national integration
174
154Owner or occupier of land on which an unlawful assembly is held191Liability of owner, occupier etc., of land on which an unlawful assembly or riot takes place
175
155Liability of person for whose benefit riot is committed191(2)Liability of owner, occupier etc., of land on which an unlawful assembly or riot takes place
176
156Liability of agent of owner or occupier for whose benefit riot is committed191(3)Liability of owner, occupier etc., of land on which an unlawful assembly or riot takes place
177
157Harbouring persons hired for an unlawful assembly
178
158Being hired to take part in an unlawful assembly or riot
179
159Affray192Affray
180
160Punishment for committing affray192Affray
181
161 to 165A
Omitted
182
166Public servant disobeying law, with intent to cause injury to any person196Public servant disobeying law, with intent to cause injury to any person
183
166APublic servant disobeying direction under law197Public servant disobeying direction under law
184
166BPunishment for non-treatment of victim198Punishment for non-treatment of victim
185
167Public servant framing an incorrect document with intent to cause injury199Public servant framing an incorrect document with intent to cause injury
186
168Public servant unlawfully engaging in trade200Public servant unlawfully engaging in trade
187
169Public servant unlawfully buying or bidding for property201Public servant unlawfully buying or bidding for property
188
170Personating a public servant202Personating a public servant
189
171Wearing garb or carrying token used by public servant with fraudulent intent203Wearing garb or carrying token used by public servant with fraudulent intent
190
171A“Candidate”, “electoral right” defined167Candidate, electoral right defined
191
171BBribery168Bribery
192
171CUnder influence at elections169Undue influence at elections
193
171DPersonation at elections170Personation at elections
194
171EPunishment for bribery171Punishment for bribery
195
171FPunishment for undue influence or personation at an election172Punishment for undue influence or personation at an election
196
171GFalse statement in connection with an election173False statement in connection with an election
197
171HIllegal payment in connection with an election174Illegal payments in connection with an election
198
171-IFailure to keep election accounts175Failure to keep election accounts
199
172Absconding to avoid service of summons or other proceeding204Absconding to avoid service of summons or other proceeding
200
173Preventing service of summons or other proceeding, or preventing publication thereof205Preventing service of summons or other proceeding, or preventing publication thereof
201
174Non-attendance in obedience to an order from public servant206Non-attendance in obedience to an order from public servant
202
174ANon-appearance in response to a proclamation under section 82 of Act 2 of 1974207Non-appearance in response to a proclamation under section 82 of Act __ of 2023
203
175Omission to produce document or electronic record to public servant by person, legally bound to produce it208Omission to produce document to public servant by person legally bound to produce it
204
176Omission to give notice or information to public servant by person legally bound to give it209Omission to give notice or information to public servant by person legally bound to give it
205
177Furnishing false information210Furnishing false information
206
178Refusing oath or affirmation when duly required by public servant to make it211Refusing oath or affirmation when duly required by public servant to make it
207
179Refusing to answer public servant authorised to question212Refusing to answer public servant authorised to question
208
180Refusing to sign statement213Refusing to sign statement
209
181False statement on oath or affirmation to public servant or person authorised to administer an oath or affirmation214False statement on oath or affirmation to public servant or person authorised to administer an oath or affirmation
210
182False information, with intent to cause public servant to use his lawful power to the injury of another person215False information, with intent to cause public servant to use his lawful power to the injury of another person
211
183Resistance to the taking of property by the lawful authority of a public servant216Resistance to the taking of property by the lawful authority of a public servant
212
184Obstructing sale of property offered for sale by authority of public servant217Obstructing sale of property offered for sale by authority of public servant
213
185Illegal purchase or bid for property offered for sale by authority of public servant218Illegal purchase or bid for property offered for sale by authority of public servant
214
186Obstructing public servant in discharge of public functions219Obstructing public servant in discharge of public functions
215
187Omission to assist public servant when bound by law to give assistance220Omission to assist public servant when bound by law to give assistance
216
188Disobedience to order duly promulgated by public servant221Disobedience to order duly promulgated by public servant
217
189Threat of injury to public servant222Threat of injury to public servant
218
190Threat of injury to induce person to refrain from applying for protection to public servant223Threat of injury to induce person to refrain from applying for protection to public servant
219
191Giving false evidence225Giving false evidence
220
192Fabricating false evidence226Fabricating false evidence
221
193Punishment for false evidence227Punishment for false evidence
222
194Giving or fabricating false evidence with intent to procure conviction of capital offence228Giving or fabricating false evidence with intent to procure conviction of capital offence
223
195Giving or fabricating false evidence with intent to procure conviction of offence punishable with imprisonment for life or imprisonment229Giving or fabricating false evidence with intent to procure conviction of offence punishable with imprisonment for life or imprisonment
224
195AThreatening any person to give false evidence230Threatening any person to give false evidence
225
196Using evidence known to be false231Using evidence known to be false
226
197Issuing or signing false certificate232Issuing or signing false certificate
227
198Using as true a certificate known to be false233Using as true a certificate known to be false
228
199False statement made in declaration which is by law receivable as evidence234False statement made in declaration which is by law receivable as evidence
229
200Using as true such declaration knowing it to be false235Using as true such declaration knowing it to be false
230
201Causing disappearance of evidence of offence, or giving false information to screen offender236Causing disappearance of evidence of offence, or giving false information to screen offender
231
202Intentional omission to give information of offence by person bound to inform237Intentional omission to give information of offence by person bound to inform
232
203Giving false information respecting an offence committed238Giving false information respecting an offence committed
233
204Destruction of document or electronic record to prevent its production as evidence239Destruction of document to prevent its production as evidence
234
205False personation for purpose of act or proceeding in suit or prosecution240False personation for purpose of act or proceeding in suit or prosecution
235
206Fraudulent removal or concealment of property to prevent its seizure as forfeited or in execution241Fraudulent removal or concealment of property to prevent its seizure as forfeited or in execution
236
207Fraudulent claim to property to prevent its seizure as forfeited or in execution242Fraudulent claim to property to prevent its seizure as forfeited or in execution
237
208Fraudulently suffering decree for sum not due243Fraudulently suffering decree for sum not due
238
209Dishonestly making false claim in Court244Dishonestly making false claim in Court
239
210Fraudulently obtaining decree for sum not due245Fraudulently obtaining decree for sum not due
240
211False charge of offence made with intent to injure246False charge of offence made with intent to injure
241
212Harbouring offender247Harbouring offender
242
213Taking gift, etc., to screen an offender from punishment248Taking gift, etc., to screen an offender from punishment
243
214Offering gift or restoration of property in consideration of screening offender249Offering gift or restoration of property in consideration of screening offender
244
215Taking gift to help to recover stolen property, etc.250Taking gift to help to recover stolen property, etc.
245
216Harbouring offender who has escaped from custody or whose apprehension has been ordered251Harbouring offender who has escaped from custody or whose apprehension has been ordered
246
216APenalty for harbouring robbers or dacoits252Penalty for harbouring robbers or dacoits
247
216BDefinition of “harbour” in sections 212, 216 and 216A
248
217Public servant disobeying direction of law with intent to save person from punishment or property from forfeiture253Public servant disobeying direction of law with intent to save person from punishment or property from forfeiture
249
218Public servant framing incorrect record or writing with intent to save person from punishment or property from forfeiture254Public servant framing incorrect record or writing with intent to save person from punishment or property from forfeiture
250
219Public servant in judicial proceeding corruptly making report, etc., contrary to law255Public servant in judicial proceeding corruptly making report, etc., contrary to law
251
220Commitment for trial or confinement by person having authority who knows that he is acting contrary to law256Commitment for trial or confinement by person having authority who knows that he is acting contrary to law
252
221Intentional omission to apprehend on the part of public servant bound to apprehend257Intentional omission to apprehend on the part of public servant bound to apprehend
253
222Intentional omission to apprehend on that part of public servant bound to apprehend person under sentence or lawfully committed258Intentional omission to apprehend on the part of public servant bound to apprehend person under sentence or lawfully committed
254
223Escape from confinement or custody negligently suffered by public servant259Escape from confinement or custody negligently suffered by public servant
255
224Resistance or obstruction by a person to his lawful apprehension260Resistance or obstruction by a person to his lawful apprehension
256
225Resistance or obstruction to lawful apprehension of another person261Resistance or obstruction to lawful apprehension of another person
257
225AOmission to apprehend, or sufferance of escape, on part of public servant, in cases not otherwise provided for262Omission to apprehend, or sufferance of escape, on part of public servant, in cases not otherwise, provided for
258
225BResistance or obstruction to lawful apprehension, or escape or rescue, in cases not otherwise provided for263Resistance or obstruction to lawful apprehension or escape or rescue in cases not otherwise provided for
259
226Unlawful return from transportation
260
227Violation of condition of remission of punishment264Violation of condition of remission of punishment
261
228Intentional insult or interruption to public servant sitting in judicial proceeding265Intentional insult or interruption to public servant sitting in judicial proceeding
262
228ADisclosure of identity of the victim of certain offences, etc.72Disclosure of identity of the victim of certain offences, etc.
263
229Personation of a juror or assessor266Personation of an assessor
264
229AFailure by person released on bail or bond to appear in Court267Failure by person released on bail or bond to appear in court
265
230“Coin” defined176Counterfeiting coin, government stamps, currency-notes or bank-notes
266
231Counterfeiting coin176Counterfeiting coin, government stamps, currency-notes or bank-notes
267
232Counterfeiting Indian coin176Counterfeiting coin, government stamps, currency-notes or bank-notes
268
233Making or selling instrument for counterfeiting coin179Making or possessing instruments or materials for forging or counterfeiting coin, Government stamp, currency notes or bank-notes
269
180Making or using documents resembling currency-notes or bank-notes
270
234Making or selling instrument for counterfeiting Indian coin179Making or possessing instruments or materials for forging or counterfeiting coin, Government stamp, currency notes or bank-notes
271
180Making or using documents resembling currency-notes or bank-notes
272
235Possession of instrument, or material for the purpose of using the same for counterfeiting coin179Making or possessing instruments or materials for forging or counterfeiting coin, Government stamp, currency notes or bank-notes
273
180Making or using documents resembling currency-notes or bank-notes
274
236Abetting in India the counterfeiting out of India of coin
275
237Import or export of counterfeit coin
276
238Import or export of counterfeits of Indian coin
277
239Delivery of coin, possessed with knowledge that it is counterfeit
278
240Delivery of Indian coin, possessed with knowledge that it is counterfeit
279
241Delivery of coin as genuine, which, when first possessed, the deliverer did not know to be counterfeit
280
242Possession of counterfeit coin by person who knew it to be counterfeit when he became possessed thereof
281
243Possession of Indian coin by person who knew it to be counterfeit when he became possessed thereof
282
244Person employed in mint causing coin to be of different weight or composition from that fixed by law185Person employed in mint causing coin to be of different weight or composition from that fixed by law
283
245Unlawfully taking coining instrument from mint186Unlawfully taking coining instrument from mint
284
246Fraudulently or dishonestly diminishing weight or altering composition of coin
285
247Fraudulently or dishonestly diminishing weight or altering composition of Indian coin
286
248Altering appearance of coin with intent that it shall pass as coin different description
287
249Altering appearance of Indian coin with intent that it shall pass as coin of different description
288
250Delivery of coin, possessed with knowledge that it is altered
289
251Delivery of Indian coin, possessed with knowledge that it is altered
290
252Possession of coin by person who knew it to be altered when he became possessed thereof
291
253Possession of Indian coin by a person who knew it to be altered when he became possessed thereof
292
254Delivery of coin as genuine which, when first possessed, the deliverer did not know to be altered
293
255Counterfeiting Government stamp176Counterfeiting coin, government stamps, currency-notes or bank-notes
294
256Having possession of instrument or material for counterfeiting Government stamp179Making or possessing instruments or materials for forging or counterfeiting coin, Government stamp, currency notes or bank-notes
295
257Making or selling instrument for counterfeiting Government stamp179Making or possessing instruments or materials for forging or counterfeiting coin, Government stamp, currency notes or bank-notes
296
258Sale of counterfeit Government stamp
297
259Having possession of counterfeit Government stamp178Possession of forged or counterfeit coin, Government stamp, currency-notes or bank-notes
298
260Using as genuine a Government stamp known to be counterfeit177Using as genuine, forged or counterfeit coin, Government stamp, currency-notes or bank notes
299
261Effacing, writing from substance bearing Government stamp, or removing from document a stamp used for it, with intent to cause loss to Government181Effacing writing from substance bearing Government stamp, or removing from document a stamp used for it, with intent to cause loss to Government
300
262Using Government stamp known to have been before used182Using Government stamp known to have been before used
301
263Erasure of mark denoting that stamp has been used183Erasure of mark denoting that stamp has been used
302
263AProhibition of fictitious stamps184Prohibition of fictitious stamps
303
264Fraudulent use of false instrument for weighing
304
265Fraudulent use of false weight or measure
305
266Being in possession of false weight or measure
306
267Making or selling false weight or measure
307
268Public nuisance268Public nuisance
308
269Negligent Act likely to spread infection of disease dangerous to life269Negligent act likely to spread infection of disease dangerous to life
309
270Malignant Act likely to spread infection of disease dangerous to life270Malignant act likely to spread infection of disease dangerous to life
310
271Disobedience to quarantine rule271Disobedience to quarantine rule
311
272Adulteration of food or drink intended for sale272Adulteration of food or drink intended for sale
312
273Sale of noxious food or drink273Sale of noxious food or drink
313
274Adulteration of drugs274Adulteration of drugs
314
275Sale of adulterated drugs275Sale of adulterated drugs
315
276Sale of drug as a different drug or preparation276Sale of drug as a different drug or preparation
316
277Fouling water of public spring or reservoir277Fouling water of public spring or reservoir
317
278Making atmosphere noxious to health278Making atmosphere noxious to health
318
279Rash driving or riding on a public way279Rash driving or riding on a public way
319
280Rash navigation of vessel280Rash navigation of vessel
320
281Exhibition of false light, mark or buoy281Exhibition of false light, mark or buoy
321
282Conveying person by water for hire in unsafe or overloaded vessel282Conveying person by water for hire in unsafe or overloaded vessel
322
283Danger or obstruction in public way or line of navigation283Danger or obstruction in public way or line of navigation
323
284Negligent conduct with respect to poisonous substance284Negligent conduct with respect to poisonous substance
324
285Negligent conduct with respect to fire or combustible matter285Negligent conduct with respect to fire or combustible matter
325
286Negligent conduct with respect to explosive substance286Negligent conduct with respect to explosive substance
326
287Negligent conduct with respect to machinery287Negligent conduct with respect to machinery
327
288Negligent conduct with respect to pulling down or repairing buildings288Negligent conduct with respect to pulling down, repairing or constructing buildings etc.
328
289Negligent conduct with respect to animal289Negligent conduct with respect to animal
329
290Punishment for public nuisance in cases not otherwise provided for290Punishment for public nuisance in cases not otherwise provided for
330
291Continuance of nuisance after injunction to discontinue291Continuance of nuisance after injunction to discontinue
331
292Sale, etc., of obscene books, etc.292Sale, etc., of obscene books, etc.
332
293Sale, etc., of obscene objects to young person293Sale, etc., of obscene objects to child
333
294Obscene Acts and songs294Obscene acts and songs
334
294AKeeping lottery office295Keeping lottery office
335
295Injuring or defiling place of worship with intent to insult the religion of any class296Injuring or defiling place of worship, with intent to insult the religion of any class
336
295ADeliberate and malicious acts intended to outrage religious feelings of any class, by insulting its religion or religious beliefs297Deliberate and malicious acts, intended to outrage religious feelings of any class by insulting its religion or religious beliefs
337
296Disturbing religious assembly298Disturbing religious assembly
338
297Trespassing on burial places, etc.299Trespassing on burial places, etc.
339
298Uttering words, etc., with deliberate intent to wound the religious feelings of any person300Uttering words, etc., with deliberate intent to wound religious feelings
340
299Culpable homicide98Culpable homicide
341
300Murder99Murder
342
301Culpable homicide by causing death of person other than person whose death was intended100Culpable homicide by causing death of person other than person whose death was intended
343
302Punishment for murder101Punishment for murder
344
303Punishment for murder by life-convict102Punishment for murder by life-convict
345
304Punishment for culpable homicide not amounting to murder103Punishment for culpable homicide not amounting to murder
346
304ACausing death by negligence104Causing death by negligence
347
304BDowry death79Dowry death
348
305Abetment of suicide of child or insane person105Abetment of suicide of child or person with mental illness
349
306Abetment of suicide106Abetment of suicide
350
307Attempt to murder107Attempt to murder
351
308Attempt to commit culpable homicide108Attempt to commit culpable homicide
352
309Attempt to commit suicide224Attempt to commit suicide to compel or restraint exercise of lawful power
353
310Thug
354
311Punishment
355
312Causing miscarriage86Causing miscarriage
356
313Causing miscarriage without woman’s consent87Causing miscarriage without woman’s consent
357
314Death caused by act done with intent to cause miscarriage88Death caused by act done with intent to cause miscarriage
358
315Act done with intent to prevent child being born alive or to cause it to die after birth89Act done with intent to prevent child being born alive or to cause it to die after birth
359
316Causing death of quick unborn child by act amounting to culpable homicide90Causing death of quick unborn child by act amounting to culpable homicide
360
317Exposure and abandonment of child under twelve years, by parent or person having care of it91Exposure and abandonment of child under twelve years, by parent or person having care of it
361
318Concealment of birth by secret disposal of dead body92Concealment of birth by secret disposal of dead body
362
319Hurt112Hurt
363
320Grievous hurt114Grievous hurt
364
321Voluntarily causing hurt113Voluntarily causing hurt
365
322Voluntarily causing grievous hurt115Voluntarily causing grievous hurt
366
323Punishment for voluntarily causing hurt113(2)Voluntarily causing hurt
367
324Voluntarily causing hurt by dangerous weapons or means116Voluntarily causing hurt or grievous hurt by dangerous weapons or means
368
325Punishment for voluntarily causing grievous hurt115(2)Voluntarily causing grievous hurt
369
326Voluntarily causing grievous hurt by dangerous weapons or means116Voluntarily causing hurt or grievous hurt by dangerous weapons or means
370
326AVoluntarily causing grievous hurt by use of acid, etc.122Voluntarily causing grievous hurt by use of acid, etc.
371
326BVoluntarily throwing or attempting to throw acid122(2)Voluntarily causing grievous hurt by use of acid, etc.
372
327Voluntarily causing hurt to extort property, or to constrain to an illegal act117Voluntarily causing hurt or grievous hurt to extort property, or to constrain to an illegal to an act
373
328Causing hurt by means of poison, etc., with intent to commit an offence121Causing hurt by means of poison, etc., with intent to commit an offence
374
329Voluntarily causing grievous hurt to extort property, or to constrain to an illegal act118Voluntarily causing hurt or grievous hurt to extort confession, or to compel restoration of property
375
330Voluntarily causing hurt to extort confession, or to compel restoration of property118Voluntarily causing hurt or grievous hurt to extort confession, or to compel restoration of property
376
331Voluntarily causing grievous hurt to extort confession, or to compel restoration of property118Voluntarily causing hurt or grievous hurt to extort confession, or to compel restoration of property
377
332Voluntarily causing hurt to deter public servant from his duty119Voluntarily causing hurt or grievous hurt to deter public servant from his duty
378
333Voluntarily causing grievous hurt to deter public servant from his duty119Voluntarily causing hurt or grievous hurt to deter public servant from his duty
379
334Voluntarily causing hurt on provocation120Voluntarily causing hurt or grievous hurt on provocation
380
335Voluntarily causing grievous hurt on provocation120Voluntarily causing hurt or grievous hurt on provocation
381
336Act endangering life or personal safety of others123Act endangering life or personal safety of others
382
337Causing hurt by act endangering life or personal safety of others123Act endangering life or personal safety of others
383
338Causing grievous hurt by act endangering life or personal safety of others
384
339Wrongful restraint124Wrongful restraint
385
340Wrongful confinement125Wrongful confinement
386
341Punishment for wrongful restraint
387
342Punishment for wrongful confinement
388
343Wrongful confinement for three or more days
389
344Wrongful confinement for ten or more days
390
345Wrongful confinement of person for whose liberation writ has been issued
391
346Wrongful confinement in secret
392
347Wrongful confinement to extort property or constrain to illegal act
393
348Wrongful confinement to extort confession, or compel restoration of property
394
349Force126Force
395
350Criminal force127Criminal force
396
351Assault128Assault
397
352Punishment for assault or criminal force otherwise than on grave provocation129Punishment for assault or criminal force otherwise than on grave provocation
398
353Assault or criminal force to deter public servant from discharge of his duty130Assault or criminal force to deter public servant from discharge of his duty
399
354Assault or criminal force to woman with intent to outrage her modesty73Assault or criminal force to woman with intent to outrage her modesty
400
354ASexual harassment and punishment for sexual harassment74Sexual harassment and punishment for sexual harassment
401
354BAssault or use of criminal force to woman with intent to disrobe75Assault or use of criminal force to woman with intent to disrobe
402
354CVoyeurism76Voyeurism
403
354DStalking77Stalking
404
355Assault or criminal force with intent to dishonour person, otherwise than on grave provocation131Assault or criminal force with intent to dishonor person, otherwise than on grave provocation
405
356Assault or criminal force in attempt to commit theft of property carried by a person132Assault or criminal force in attempt to commit theft of property carried by a person
406
357Assault or criminal force in attempt wrongfully to confine a person133Assault or criminal force in attempt wrongfully to confine a person
407
358Assault or criminal force on grave provocation134Assault or criminal force on grave provocation
408
359Kidnapping135Kidnapping
409
360Kidnapping from India
410
361Kidnapping from lawful guardianship
411
362Abduction136Abduction
412
363Punishment for kidnapping
413
363AKidnapping or maiming a minor for purposes of begging137Kidnapping or maiming a child for purposes of begging
414
364Kidnapping or abducting in order to murder138Kidnapping or abducting in order to murder or for ransom etc.
415
364AKidnapping for ransom, etc.138Kidnapping or abducting in order to murder or for ransom etc.
416
365Kidnapping or abducting with intent secretly and wrongfully to confine person
417
366Kidnapping, abducting or inducing woman to compel her marriage, etc.85Kidnapping, abducting or inducing woman to compel her marriage, etc.
418
366AProcuration of minor girl
419
366BImportation of girl from foreign country139Importation of girl or boy from foreign country
420
367Kidnapping or abducting in order to subject person to grievous hurt, slavery, etc.139Importation of girl or boy from foreign country
421
368Wrongfully concealing or keeping in confinement, kidnapped or abducted person140Wrongfully concealing or keeping in confinement, kidnapped or abducted person
422
369Kidnapping or abducting child under ten years with intent to steal from its person
423
370Trafficking of person141Trafficking of person
424
370AExploitation of a trafficked person142Exploitation of a trafficked person
425
371Habitual dealing in slaves143Habitual dealing in slaves
426
372Selling minor for purposes of prostitution, etc.96Selling child for purposes of prostitution, etc.
427
373Buying minor for purposes of prostitution, etc.97Buying child for purposes of prostitution, etc.
428
374Unlawful compulsory labour144Unlawful compulsory labour
429
375Rape63Rape
430
376Punishment for rape64Punishment for rape
431
376APunishment for causing death or resulting in persistent vegetative state of victim66Punishment for causing death or resulting in persistent vegetative state of victim
432
376ABPunishment for rape on woman under twelve years of age65Punishment for rape in certain cases
433
376BSexual intercourse by husband upon his wife during separation67Sexual intercourse by husband upon his wife during separation or by a person in authority
434
376CSexual intercourse by a person in authority68Sexual intercourse by a person in authority
435
376DGang rape70Gang rape
436
376DAPunishment for gang rape on woman under sixteen years of age70Gang rape
437
376DBPunishment for gang rape on woman under twelve years of age70Gang rape
438
376EPunishment for repeat offenders71Punishment for repeat offenders
439
377Unnatural offences
440
378Theft301Theft
441
379Punishment for theft
442
380Theft in dwelling house, etc.303Theft in a dwelling house, or means of transportation or place of worship, etc.
443
381Theft by clerk or servant of property in possession of master304Theft by clerk or servant of property in possession of master
444
382Theft after preparation made for causing death, hurt or restraint in order to the committing of the theft305Theft after preparation made for causing death, hurt or restraint in order to the committing of theft
445
383Extortion306Extortion
446
384Punishment for extortion
447
385Putting person in fear of injury in order to commit extortion
448
386Extortion by putting a person in fear of death or grievous hurt
449
387Putting person in fear of death or of grievous hurt, in order to commit extortion
450
388Extortion by threat of accusation of an offence punishable with death or imprisonment for life, etc.
451
389Putting person in fear of accusation of offence, in order to commit extortion
452
390Robbery307Robbery
453
391Dacoity308Dacoity
454
392Punishment for robbery307Robbery
455
393Attempt to commit robbery307Robbery
456
394Voluntarily causing hurt in committing robbery307Robbery
457
395Punishment for dacoity308Dacoity
458
396Dacoity with murder
459
397Robbery or dacoity, with attempt to cause death or grievous hurt309Robbery, or dacoity, with attempt to cause death or grievous hurt
460
398Attempt to commit robbery or dacoity when armed with deadly weapon310Attempt to commit robbery or dacoity when armed with deadly weapon
461
399Making preparation to commit dacoity308Dacoity
462
400Punishment for belonging to gang of dacoits311Punishment for belonging to gang of robbers, dacoits, etc.
463
401Punishment for belonging to gang of thieves311Punishment for belonging to gang of robbers, dacoits, etc.
464
402Assembling for purpose of committing dacoity308Dacoity
465
403Dishonest misappropriation of property312Dishonest misappropriation of property
466
404Dishonest misappropriation of property possessed by deceased person at the time of his death313Dishonest misappropriation of property possessed by deceased person at the time of his death
467
405Criminal breach of trust314Criminal breach of trust
468
406Punishment for criminal breach of trust
469
407Criminal breach of trust by carrier, etc.
470
408Criminal breach of trust by clerk or servant
471
409Criminal breach of trust by public servant, or by banker, merchant or agent
472
410Stolen property315Stolen property
473
411Dishonestly receiving stolen property
474
412Dishonestly receiving property stolen in the commission of a dacoity
475
413Habitually dealing in stolen property
476
414Assisting in concealment of stolen property
477
415Cheating316Cheating
478
416Cheating by personation317Cheating by personation
479
417Punishment for cheating
480
418Cheating with knowledge that wrongful loss may ensue to person whose interest offender is bound to protect
481
419Punishment for cheating by personation
482
420Cheating and dishonestly inducing delivery of property
483
421Dishonest or fraudulent removal or concealment of property to prevent distribution among creditors318Dishonest or fraudulent removal or concealment of property to prevent distribution among creditors
484
422Dishonestly or fraudulently preventing debt being available for creditors319Dishonestly or fraudulently preventing debt being available for creditors
485
423Dishonest or fraudulent execution of deed of transfer containing false statement of consideration320Dishonest or fraudulent execution of deed of transfer containing false statement of consideration
486
424Dishonest or fraudulent removal or concealment of property321Dishonest or fraudulent removal or concealment of property
487
425Mischief322Mischief
488
426Punishment for mischief
489
427Mischief causing damage to the amount of fifty rupees
490
428Mischief by killing or maiming animal of the value of ten rupees323Mischief by killing or maiming animal
491
429Mischief by killing or maiming cattle, etc., of any value or any animal of the value of fifty rupees323Mischief by killing or maiming animal
492
430Mischief by injury to works of irrigation or by wrongfully diverting water323Mischief by killing or maiming animal
493
324Mischief by injury, inundation, fire or explosive substance, etc.
494
325Mischief with intent to destroy or make unsafe a rail, aircraft, decked vessel or one of twenty tons burden
495
431Mischief by injury to public road, bridge, river or channel323Mischief by killing or maiming animal
496
324Mischief by injury, inundation, fire or explosive substance, etc.
497
325Mischief with intent to destroy or make unsafe a rail, aircraft, decked vessel or one of twenty tons burden
498
432Mischief by causing inundation or obstruction to public drainage attended with damage323Mischief by killing or maiming animal
499
324Mischief by injury, inundation, fire or explosive substance, etc.
500
325Mischief with intent to destroy or make unsafe a rail, aircraft, decked vessel or one of twenty tons burden
501
433Mischief by destroying, moving or rendering less useful a light-house or sea-mark
502
434Mischief by destroying or moving, etc., a land-mark fixed by public authority
503
435Mischief by fire or explosive substance with intent to cause damage to amount of one hundred or (in case of agricultural produce) ten rupees
504
436Mischief by fire or explosive substance with intent to destroy house, etc.
505
437Mischief with intent to destroy or make unsafe a decked vessel or one of twenty tons burden
506
438Punishment for the mischief described in section 437 committed by fire or explosive substance
507
439Punishment for intentionally running vessel aground or ashore with intent to commit theft, etc.326Punishment for intentionally running vessel aground or ashore with intent to commit theft, etc.
508
440Mischief committed after preparation made for causing death or hurt
509
441Criminal trespass327Criminal trespass and house-trespass
510
442House-trespass328House-trespass and house-breaking
511
443Lurking house-trespass
512
444Lurking house-trespass by night
513
445House-breaking328House-trespass and house-breaking
514
446House-breaking by night
515
447Punishment for criminal trespass
516
448Punishment for house-trespass329Punishment for house-trespass or house breaking
517
449House-trespass in order to commit offence punishable with death330House-trespass in order to commit offence
518
450House-trespass in order to commit offence punishable with imprisonment for life330House-trespass in order to commit offence
519
451House-trespass in order to commit offence punishable with imprisonment330House-trespass in order to commit offence
520
452House-trespass after preparation for hurt, assault or wrongful restraint331House-trespass after preparation for hurt, assault or wrongful restraint
521
453Punishment for lurking house-trespass or house-breaking
522
454Lurking house-trespass or house-breaking in order to commit offence punishable with imprisonment
523
455Lurking house-trespass or house-breaking after preparation for hurt, assault or wrongful restraint
524
456Punishment for lurking house-trespass or house-breaking by night
525
457Lurking house-trespass or house-breaking by night in order to commit offence punishable with imprisonment
526
458Lurking house-trespass or house-breaking by night after preparation for hurt, assault, or wrongful restraint
527
459Grievous hurt caused whilst committing lurking house-trespass or house-breaking
528
460All persons jointly concerned in lurking house-trespass or house-breaking by night punishable where death or grievous hurt caused by one of them
529
461Dishonestly breaking open receptacle containing property332Dishonestly breaking open receptacle containing property
530
462Punishment for same offence when committed by person entrusted with custody
531
463Forgery334Forgery
532
464Making a false document333Making a false document
533
465Punishment for forgery
534
466Forgery of record of Court or of public register, etc.335Forgery of record of Court or of public register, etc.
535
467Forgery of valuable security will, etc.336Forgery of valuable security, will, etc.
536
468Forgery for purpose of cheating
537
469Forgery for purpose of harming reputation
538
470Forged document or electronic record338Forged document or electronic record and using it as genuine
539
471Using as genuine a forged document or electronic record
540
472Making or possessing counterfeit seal, etc., with intent to commit forgery, punishable under section 467
541
473Making or possessing counterfeit seal, etc., with intent to commit forgery punishable otherwise339Making or possessing counterfeit seal, etc., with intent to commit forgery punishable under section 336
542
474Having possession of document described in section 466 or 467, knowing it to be forged and intending to use it as genuine337Having possession of document described in section 335 or 336, knowing it to be forged and intending to use it as genuine
543
475Counterfeiting device or mark used for authenticating documents described in section 467, or possessing counterfeit marked material340Counterfeiting device or mark used for authenticating documents described in section 336, or possessing counterfeit marked material
544
476Counterfeiting device or mark used for authenticating documents other than those described in section 467, or possessing cunterfeit marked material
545
477Fraudulent cancellation, destruction, etc., of will, authority to adopt, or valuable security341Fraudulent cancellation, destruction, etc., of will, authority to adopt, or valuable security
546
477AFalsification of accounts342Falsification of accounts
547
478Trade marks
548
479Property mark343Property mark
549
480Using a false trade mark
550
481Using a false property mark
551
482Punishment for using a false property mark
552
483Counterfeiting a property mark used by another345Counterfeiting a property mark
553
484Counterfeiting a mark used by a public servant
554
485Making or possession of any instrument for counterfeiting a property mark346Making or possession of any instrument for counterfeiting a property mark
555
486Selling goods marked with a counterfeit property mark347Selling goods marked with a counterfeit property mark
556
487Making a false mark upon any receptacle containing goods348Making a false mark upon any receptacle containing goods
557
488Punishment for making use of any such false mark348Making a false mark upon any receptacle containing goods
558
489Tampering with property mark with intent to cause injury344Tampering with property mark with intent to cause injury
559
489ACounterfeiting currency-notes or bank-notes176Counterfeiting coin, government stamps, currency-notes or bank-notes
560
489BUsing as genuine, forged or counterfeit currency-notes or bank-notes177Using as genuine, forged or counterfeit coin, Government stamp, currency-notes or bank notes
561
489CPossession of forged or counterfeit currency-notes or bank-notes178Possession of forged or counterfeit coin, Government stamp, currency-notes or bank-notes
562
489DMaking or possessing instruments or materials for forging or counterfeiting currency-notes or bank-notes179Making or possessing instruments or materials for forging or counterfeiting coin, Government stamp, currency notes or bank-notes
563
489EMaking or using documents resembling currency-notes or bank-notes180Making or using documents resembling currency-notes or bank-notes
564
490Breach of contract of service during voyage of journey
565
491Breach of contract to attend on and supply wants of helpless person355Breach of contract to attend on and supply wants of helpless person
566
492Breach of contract to serve at distant place to which servant is conveyed at master’s expense
567
493Cohabitation caused by a man deceitfully inducing a belief of lawful marriage80Cohabitation caused by a man deceitfully inducing a belief of lawful marriage
568
494Marrying again during lifetime of husband or wife81Marrying again during lifetime of husband or wife
569
495Same offence with concealment of former marriage from person with whom subsequent marriage is contracted
570
496Marriage ceremony fraudulently gone through without lawful marriage82Marriage ceremony fraudulently gone through without lawful marriage
571
497Adultery
572
498Enticing or taking away or detaining with criminal intent a married woman83Enticing or taking away or detaining with criminal intent a married woman
573
498AHusband or relative of husband of a woman subjecting her to cruelty84Husband or relative of husband of a woman subjecting her to cruelty
574
499Defamation354Defamation
575
500Punishment for defamation354Defamation
576
501Printing or engraving matter known to be defamatory354(3)Defamation
577
502Sale of printed or engraved substance containing defamatory matter354(4)Defamation
578
503Criminal intimidation349Criminal intimidation
579
504Intentional insult with intent to provoke breach of the peace350Intentional insult with intent to provoke breach of peace
580
505Statements conducing to public mischief351Statements conducing to public mischief
581
506Punishment for criminal intimidation349Criminal intimidation
582
507Criminal intimidation by an anonymous communication349(4)Criminal intimidation
583
508Act caused by inducing person to believe that he will be rendered an object of the Divine displeasure352Act caused by inducing person to believe that he will be rendered an object of the Divine displeasure
584
509Word, gesture or act intended to insult the modesty of a woman78Word, gesture or act intended to insult the modesty of a woman
585
510Misconduct in public by a drunken person353Misconduct in public by a drunken person
586
511Punishment for attempting to commit offences punishable with imprisonment for life or other imprisonment62Punishment for attempting to commit offences punishable with imprisonment for life or other imprisonment

Comparative Comparative Chart of Indian Penal Code (IPC) and Bharatiya Nyaya Sanhita (BNS) 2023

In India, the legal framework evolves continuously to adapt to societal changes and enhance justice delivery. The Indian Penal Code (IPC), established in 1860, has been the cornerstone of criminal law. Recently, discussions have emerged around the introduction of the 2023 BNS (placeholder for hypothetical new law) to update and streamline the existing legal provisions.

Understanding the Indian Penal Code (IPC)

The Indian Penal Code, drafted under the guidance of Lord Macaulay, forms the bedrock of criminal law in India. It categorizes offenses under distinct sections, prescribing punishments for each. Its comprehensive nature addresses a wide range of criminal acts, ensuring uniformity in legal application across the country.

Introducing the Bharatiya Nyaya Sanhita (BNS) 2023

The proposed 2023 BNS aims to modernize India’s legal framework in response to contemporary challenges. It promises enhancements in several key areas, such as:

  • Cyber Crimes: With the rise of digital offenses, the 2023 BNS proposes stringent measures to combat cyber threats, reflecting the growing reliance on technology in criminal activities.

  • Environmental Offenses: Recognizing the urgency of environmental conservation, the new law introduces provisions to tackle environmental crimes effectively, aligning with global sustainability goals.

  • Corporate Governance: In response to corporate scandals and economic crimes, the 2023 BNS incorporates provisions for stricter corporate governance, aiming to foster transparency and accountability in business practices.

 

Comparative Analysis

Scope and Coverage

While the IPC remains extensive in its coverage, the 2023 BNS introduces specialized provisions tailored to emerging challenges. It expands the legal scope to encompass modern-day offenses not adequately addressed in the IPC, thereby bridging gaps in legal protection.

Punitive Measures

Both legislations emphasize deterrence through punitive measures. However, the 2023 BNS proposes updated sentencing guidelines to ensure proportionality and consistency in punishment, reflecting evolving societal norms and expectations.

Accessibility and Clarity

The IPC, though robust, can be perceived as complex due to its age and frequent judicial interpretations. In contrast, the 2023 BNS strives for clarity and accessibility, employing modern legal language and streamlined provisions to facilitate easier comprehension and application.

 

The comparison between the Indian Penal Code (IPC) and the proposed 2023 BNS underscores India’s commitment to legal reform and adaptation. While the IPC serves as a fundamental legal document, the introduction of the 2023 BNS represents a forward-looking approach to address contemporary legal challenges comprehensively.

As India navigates the complexities of modern governance and justice, the synergy between these legislations ensures a balanced legal framework that safeguards societal interests while promoting justice and equity.

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

The Indian Penal Code (IPC), enacted in 1860, is a comprehensive legislation that defines various criminal offenses and prescribes punishments for them. It forms the backbone of criminal law in India, guiding the prosecution and adjudication of criminal cases.

The Bharatiya Nyaya Sanhita (BNS) 2023 is a proposed legislation aimed at updating and refining India’s criminal laws to address contemporary challenges. It seeks to modernize criminal offenses, punishments, and procedural aspects within the legal system.

The Indian Penal Code (IPC) provides a structured framework for defining criminal offenses and specifying punishments based on established legal principles. In contrast, the BNS 2023 introduces reforms such as:

  • New Offenses: Incorporating new types of criminal conduct reflecting modern societal concerns.
  • Enhanced Penalties: Revising penalties to align with evolving standards of justice and deterrence.
  • Procedural Reforms: Introducing streamlined procedures for investigation, trial, and sentencing.

Key enhancements proposed under the Bharatiya Nyaya Sanhita (BNS) 2023 include:

  • Cybercrime Legislation: Specific provisions to address offenses related to cyber activities and digital communications.
  • Environmental Offenses: Stricter penalties for environmental crimes to promote sustainability and conservation efforts.
  • Corporate Governance: Provisions to regulate corporate misconduct and enhance transparency in business practices.

The BNS 2023 is expected to impact criminal justice by:

  • Modernizing Legal Standards: Updating laws to address emerging criminal activities and technological advancements.
  • Improving Deterrence: Strengthening penalties to deter potential offenders and protect public safety.
  • Enhancing Efficiency: Streamlining procedures to expedite trials and ensure prompt justice delivery.

As of now, the BNS 2023 is a proposed legislation and its implementation depends on legislative approval and adoption. It is designed to complement the existing Indian Penal Code by enhancing and updating criminal laws to meet contemporary societal needs.

The BNS 2023 is expected to benefit law enforcement and the public by:

  • Clearer Legal Standards: Providing clearer guidelines for law enforcement agencies and legal professionals.
  • Enhanced Protections: Strengthening legal protections for vulnerable groups and victims of crime.
  • Promoting Accountability: Holding individuals and entities accountable for criminal conduct through effective legal frameworks.
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